Sunday, May 24, 2020

Gender Differences Between Sexuality And Gender - 888 Words

In sociology, we make a general distinction between sexuality and gender. Sex is the biological trait that we use to determine whether or not a person is a male or a female, whether it be through chromosomes, genitalia, or some other kind of visual physical description. When society talks about the obvious differences between men and women, they are often drawing on sex rather than gender, which is now an understanding of how society helps to shape our new understanding of these biological categories. In class we learned how to differentiate between the three, understanding that Sex refers to the natural or biological differences that distinguish males and females, Sexuality refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior, and Gender is a social construct that consists of a set of social arrangements that are built around sex. Gender, like all other forms of social identities, is considered to be socially constructed. Social constructionism is a key theory used to put gender into a more historic and cultural form. It is a proven social theory- meaning is created through social interaction. Through the things we do and say with other people, this theory proves that gender in itself is not a fixed or innate fact, instead it varies across place and time. Gender norms, or the the socially acceptable ways of acting out a specific gender, are learned from birth through childhood and are taught as is. We learn overall what is expected of our gender through whatShow MoreRelated The Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality Essay1361 Words   |  6 Pagesexemplifies the definition of gender as a concept; gender is the expectations of a sex according to the culture of society. Sexuality, within this definition of gender, reflects society’s expectations, which are created in relation to the opposite sex. Th e variances between cultures means that gender expectations change within different cultures. These expectations put pressure on each member of society to conform and abide by the folkways of their own culture. The creation of gender expectations by societyRead MoreEssay on Our Understanding of Sexuality and Family Formation1213 Words   |  5 PagesOur Understanding of Sexuality and Family Formation The investigations in the determinants of gender and sexuality are ongoing; some are biologically orientated while others believe that they are socially constructed. This essay will discuss the idea that our understanding of sexuality and gender is linked to our understanding of family formations. It will highlight the diversities and the relationships of sexuality, gender and the family. It will also draw attentionRead MoreSummary Of Beyond Caring : The Demoralization Of Gender1051 Words   |  5 PagesIn her article, â€Å"Beyond Caring: The Demoralization of Gender†, Friedman states that the difference in moral reasoning between genders is because of the difference in primary moral forms of commitment which structure moral thought. According to Friedman, there are two types of primary moral commitments; the first is commitment to a particular person and the second is commitment to abstract principles, values, and rules. Commitment to a particular person involves focusing on one person, being responsiveRead MoreThe Topic Of Sexuality1144 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduce the topic of sexuality (para)- Horrocks (1997) points out in his book that sexuality encircles multiple aspects of human existence. Sexuality is then, not a uniform or simple phenomenon and is influenced by the interaction of psychological, biological, social, cultural factors and many more. Horrocks (1997), suggests that to try and understand or explain a definitive conclusion about sexuality seems impossible as sexuality has different meanings to so many groups of people. IntroduceRead MoreGender And Sexual Attitudes And Behavior1520 Words   |  7 Pagesculture it is certain there are gender dissimilarities in the topic of sexuality. Over time scholarly work has proved an abundant amount of different components correlating to the difference in sexuality resulting in the distinctions of sexual behaviors as well as attitudes among males and females. Difference in sexual attitudes and behavior can be seen between genders across various studies. This research study indicates the differences in sexuality according to gender. It is known that most malesRead MoreDismantling Binaries: Bisexuality947 Words   |  4 Pagesvested interest in keeping them. Without a procedure of making difference among people or by developing a way to tell dissimilar types of people, there would be no source for treating people differently. This disparity treatment is not essentially unequal, social disparity but it boils down to treating people differently. Lucal, in his article focuses on the building and preservation of boxes and limits with respect to sex, gender and sexuality. In the society, these boxes and their limits rest on a multiplicityRead MoreRelationship Values Between Gender And Sexuality Essay1181 Words   |  5 PagesRelationship values between gender and sexuality Gender is known as the set of expectations and norms linked to how men and women, and boys and girls, should act. Sexuality which refers to the biological characteristics that define men and women. Relationship values are what you believe in and morals that you hold important to you so you can live your life to the fullest. Your values are based on what you have experienced through your life and what you have learned over the years. Gender and sexual identityRead MoreSex, Gender, And Sexuality1490 Words   |  6 PagesSex, gender, and sexuality are words that are constantly are been not understood properly and also misused by societies. But scholars through research and history have come up with basic ways to distinguish what each term means. Starting with the term sex, sex is known as a biological structure of a person (Renzetti 2). There also is another way that sex defined, some believe that the definition of is the meaning the society and each individual gave it, â€Å"or the v arious ways we express our sexualRead MoreGender Inequality Between Men And Women908 Words   |  4 Pagesand â€Å"gender† synonymously, it’s important to recognize the difference between the two. In West and Zimmerman’s article, â€Å"Doing Gender,† they make this distinction. Sex is defined as â€Å"biology: anatomy, hormones, and physiology,† and gender is â€Å"an achieved status: that which is constructed through psychological, cultural, and social means† (West and Zimmerman; 125). Michael Kimmel, the author of The Gendered Society and a sociologist at Stony Brook University in New York, further defines gender as â€Å"[referring]Read MoreThe Search For One’S Purpose And Identity In The World1421 Words   |  6 Pagesof people, such as race, gender, class, sexuality, etc.--exist to avoid social anxiety. The problem lies not just with the existence of stereotypes, but the seemingly blind consent to follow. To combat the invalid views of groups that today’s society use as a social crutch, authors, such as Gloria Naylor, Robert Max Johnson, Rosario Morales and others, attempt to expose the discrimination and stereotypes that target sexuality and gender. Sexuality and gender may appear as the same topic;

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Asians And Asian American Culture - 882 Words

This class helped me realize how ignorant I really was about the Asian American culture as well as the Native American culture. I generally believed that I was more culturally sound than I actually am. I believed that I knew more about these cultures than I really did and was shocked to realize that I fed into some of the stereotypes. I knew that Asian Americans did well academically because their parents valued education and had them study more than their peers, however I did not realize that culturally boys were expected to succeed more academically than girls were. I believed that girls were equally held up to a standard as boys were. Watching the film clips related to Asians and Asian Americans was an eye opening experience. Just as African Americans are told that their natural hair is not good enough and it is internalized, it appears it is the same for many Asian Americans in relation to their eyes. The film clip about the young girl being taken to have plastic surgery on her eyes at the age of 12 because she felt that she would be more beautiful was a heart-breaking scene to watch. It never occurred to me that a feature that is specific to that particular group would become something that has almost become shameful to a lot of people. To have an eye surgery is a serious decision one has to make and for that little girl to be so sure that she wants her eyes operated on at 12 years old was something that I could relate to, but not understand. I also did not realizeShow MoreRelatedAsian American Culture925 Words   |  4 PagesAsian American/Chinese Culture Theresa Chambers Webster University Abstract A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. Most Chinese Americans are descended from Chinas majority ethnic group, the Han. The rest are usually members of one of Chinas 56 minorities, such as the Hui. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and are also one group of Asian Americans. Asian American/ Chinese Culture Immigration Chinese immigration to the UnitedRead MoreAsian Cultures And American Cultures Essay2460 Words   |  10 Pagesbackgrounds, and cultures. Cultures are very unique as they are different from country to country. Some adopt cultures that society accepts as the norm, while others adopt different types of cultures; cultures that not many people, especially those outside of the country, can see eye to eye and would sometimes find them rather ‘extreme’. When comparing Asian cultures and American cultures side by side, we can easily identify the many differences between the two. For one, Asian cultures are less openRead MoreAsian Cultures And American Cultures Essay2452 Words   |  10 PagesCulture: Earth is bigger than what most people think; it consists of 7 continents, 7 seas, and 196 different countries. Taking that into consideration, our earth currently is supporting over 7 billion people worldwide. That is 7 billion people who are different and individuals who share different thoughts, ideas, backgrounds, and cultures. Cultures are very unique as they are different from country to country. Some adopt cultures that society accept as the norm, while others adopt different typesRead MoreThe Asian American Culture Of America1907 Words   |  8 Pages The culture that I chose to present is the Asian American culture. It is one of the fastest formed ethnic groups that had their population grow 63% from 1990 to 2000 (Nguyen, 1). The history of the first Asian immigrants started around the gold rush in California. Many Asian immigrants wanted to pursue fortunes in America because of economic hardships in China. Many Chinese started moving to the United States in hopes to ge t some of the gold in California. Many Chinese were also contracted toRead MoreAsian American Culture And History1707 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most prevalent issue in today’s world is racism. The prejudice and racism against Asian Americans seems to never end. Either it’s a nasty side remark about one’s looks or a judgment about one’s personality and abilities. In high school, one of my best friends was Vietnamese and I remember her going through quite a bit of problems. She was most definitely stereotyped and was supposed to be good at math and science, when in truth, she was horrible at both subjects. Instead, she loved historyRead More Researching the Asian American Culture Essay1636 Words   |  7 PagesResearching the Asian American Culture There are fundamental differences between Eastern and Western cultures and the meeting of these cultures has had several effects, both in Asia and here in the US. Overseas, you can see the juxtaposition of American pop culture on the older modes of Asian thought and society. Here, New Age religions find new excuses in Asian religions and philosophies and Anime is appears regularly on Saturday morning cartoons. Often, this juxtaposition becomes turbulentRead MoreThe Culture Of Asian American And Being Labeled As An Ethnic1496 Words   |  6 Pagesissues of being an Asian-American and being labeled as an ethnic â€Å"other† in modern America. This label of â€Å"other† causes them to become marginalized and lose their sense of identity, belonging neither to Western culture nor Eastern culture. In order help stop this loss of identity in Asian-Americans, we must tear down the social construct of the â€Å"other† and integrate the different cultures into the mel ting pot of popular culture. Once we have stopped alienating different cultures, we can then haveRead MoreNegotiations Between International Companies From American And Asian Cultures964 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent cultures or have different backgrounds, since negotiations are not only between companies from the same country, but also with companies from different countries. An example of this is the negotiations between international companies from American and Asian countries, a situation that is increasing a cause of the globalization. An even though this cultures know that negotiations is a significant component in business, there are differences in how this process is approached by American and AsianRead MoreThe Differences Between Westernized American Culture And East Asian Islamic Culture Essay1311 Words   |  6 PagesEast Asian Culture This world we live in is such a diverse place with many different cultures, religions, and traditions. Every culture has their own traditions and rules that they abide by, because this is the norm for that culture. By stepping out of what you were taught in your culture, and choosing to learn and try to understand why other cultures do things differently, you earn a new perceptive on this world. You earn a new respect for not only this other culture that you are learning aboutRead MoreAsian Philosophy and Literature Essay examples1266 Words   |  6 PagesAsian Philosophy and Literature Paper Sonya Dowell ENG/301 August 13, 2012 Marc Bonnani INTRODUCTION The Asian Culture has faith in that there are a series of beliefs and principled forms in the Asian literature that follows in the ethnic steadiness and a thoughtful of collaboration that resulted in the mutual understanding of Asian literature development, but the Asian literature views comes from a diverse ethnic upbringings, no single meaning of the word exists, but characteristically

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror Free Essays

Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror Ian T. Snyder POL 201 Pearl Galano October 20th 2012 Habeas corpus is considered to be one of the most fundamental guarantees of personal liberty we have enjoyed as a country since the inception of our Constitution. However, questions have arisen regarding the proper use of habeas corpus and have been brought into focus in the past decade. We will write a custom essay sample on Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the years since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, hundreds of people have been detained by the United States government as part of its war on terror. Most of these detainees face indefinite detention and have neither been charged with a crime nor afforded prisoner of war status. Habeas corpus serves to protect citizens against arbitrary arrest, torture, and extrajudicial killings and is a fundamental personal liberty guaranteed by our Constitution and cannot be suspended based on that fact. Habeas corpus (or writ of Habeas corpus ) is a judicially enforceable order issued by a court of law to a prison official ordering that a prisoner be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that prisoner had been lawfully imprisoned and, if not, whether he or she should be released from custody. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned. The rights of writs of habeas corpus are granted in Article I of the Constitution, which States, â€Å"The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. â€Å"( Habeas Corpus in times of Emergency; Iowa State Review) A Habeas Corpus petition is a petition filed with a court by a person who objects to his own or another’s imprisonment. The petition must show that the court ordering the imprisonment made a legal or factual error. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned. History The history of Habeas Corpus is ancient. It appears to be predominately of Anglo-Saxon common law origin, although the precise origin of Habeas Corpus is uncertain. Its principle effect was achieved in the middle ages by use of similar laws, the sum of which helped to mold our current policies. Habeas Corpus has since the earliest times been employed to compel the appearance of a person who is in custody to be brought before a court. Habeas Corpus was generally unknown to the various law systems of Europe which are generally devolved from Roman law. European civil law systems tend to favor collective authority from the top down while the Anglo-Saxon common law tends to favor the individual. As a feature of common law, the right of Habeas Corpus reflects the age old contest between the individual and the state. Habeas Corpus empowers the individual in holding accountable the exercise of the states power to influence liberty. The War on Terror In the years since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, hundreds of people have been detained by the United States government as part of its war on terror at locations such as the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba and Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan. Most of these detainees have faced indefinite detention and have neither been charged with a crime nor afforded prisoner of war Status. Many of these detainees have sought to use habeas corpus proceedings to challenge the legality of their detention. The United States government initially took the position that habeas corpus was not available to detainees because of their status as â€Å"enemy combatants† and their location outside of the sovereign territory of the United States. In 2004, the United States Supreme Court determined that non-citizen detainees at Guantanamo Bay were entitled to file habeas corpus petitions in federal courts. Congress subsequently made a political determination as to the appropriate scope of habeas corpus and passed legislation that, stripped federal courts of jurisdiction to hear habeas corpus petitions brought by enemy combatants. This ruling was then shortly overturned. The question of whether detainees such as those at Bagram and Guantanamo Bay should have access to habeas corpus is a complex one. It involves issues of territorial jurisdiction, separation of powers, and the status of the individuals. However, at a more basic level, this question should ask as to the nature of the right of habeas corpus and the applicability of the rule of law during national security emergencies. At this level, the situation presented by detainees at Guantanamo Bay or Bagram is not entirely unique. It represents another example of those situations in which governments have attempted to deny the availability of habeas corpus based on real or perceived threats to national security. On Oct. 17, 2006, President Bush signed a law suspending the right of habeas corpus to persons â€Å"determined by the United States† to be an â€Å"enemy combatant† in the Global War on Terror. President Bush’s action drew severe criticism, mainly for the law’s failure to specifically designate who in the United States will determine who is and who is not an enemy combatant. This however was not the first time in the history of the U. S. Constitution that it’s guaranteed right to habeas corpus has been suspended by an action of the President of the United States. In the early days of the U. S. Civil War Abraham Lincoln suspended writs of habeas corpus. Both presidents based their action on the dangers of war, and both presidents faced sharp criticism for carrying out what many believed to be an attack on the Constitution. President Bush suspended writs of habeas corpus through his support and signing into law of the Military Commissions Act of 2006. The bill grants the President of the United States almost unlimited authority in establishing and conducting military commissions to try persons held by the U. S. in the Global War on Terrorism. In addition, the Act suspends the right of â€Å"unlawful enemy combatants† to present, or to have presented in their behalf, writs of habeas corpus. 1. Jonathan Turley, professor of constitutional law at George Washington University stated, â€Å"What, really, a time of shame this is for the American system. What the Congress did and what the president signed today essentially revokes over 200 years of American principles and values. † To which I agree. The President’s decision to deny the detainees prisoner-of-war (POW) status remains a point of contention, especially overseas with some arguing that it is based on an inaccurate interpretation of the Geneva Convention for the Treatment of Prisoners of War , which they assert requires that all combatants captured on the battlefield are entitled to be treated as POWs until an independent tribunal has determined otherwise. The Geneva Conventions of 1949 create comprehensive legal specifications for the treatment of detainees in war. Members of a regular armed force and certain others share entitled to specific privileges as POWs. Members of volunteer corps, militias, and organized resistance forces that are not part of the armed services of a party to the conflict are entitled to POW status if they meet four criteria specified in the treaty. Groups that do not meet the standards are not entitled to POW status, and their members who commit belligerent acts may be treated as civilians under the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. ( Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution – Policy Archive ) These â€Å"unlawful combatants† are not afforded immunity for their hostile acts. A petitioner must be treated as a prisoner of war until a competent tribunal has decided otherwise, and that a military commission may not proceed with their trial. Although some 250 detainees (including three children under the age of 16)13 have been released from the detention facilities at the U. S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and some detainees are being rewarded for cooperation with better living conditions while the status and treatment of detainees who remain in custody continue to be a source of contention. (â€Å"Enemy Combatants† Journal, Wuerth) Summary The Constitution provides Congress with ample authority to legislate the treatment of battlefield detainees in the custody of the U. S. military. The Constitution empowers Congress to make rules regarding capture and to define and punish violations of international law, and to make regulations to govern the armed forces. (Policy Archive) Congress also has the constitutional prerogative to declare war, a power it has not yet exercised with regard to the armed conflict in Afghanistan. By not declaring war, Congress has implicitly redefined what was clearly stated in the Constitution concerning the treatment of detainees. The Administration has asserted that the war on terror is a new kind of conflict, requiring a new set of rules and definitions. However it is clear that there has been a failure to expeditiously process and, if appropriate, prosecute detainees in the custody of the United States, including those in the custody of the United States. References: 2. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 344 F. Supp. 2d 152 (D. D. C. ,2004), rev’d 413 F. 3d 33 (D. C. Cir. 2005), cert. granted 2005 U. S. LEXIS 8222 (Nov. 7, 2005). 3. Habeas Corpus in Times of Emergency: A Historical and Comparative View Brian Farrell University of Iowa College of Law . The War and the Writ Habeas corpus and security in an age of terrorism by Jonathan Shaw January-February 2009 (Harvard Magazine) 5. U. S. -Freed ‘Combatant’ Is Returned to Saudi Arabia, L. A. TIMES, Oct. 12, 2004, at A8; Jerry Markon, Father Denounces Hamdi’s Imprisonment; Son Posed No Threat to U. S. , He Says, WASH. POST, Oct. 13, 2004, at A4. 6. Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution – Policy Archive www. policyarchive. org/handle/10207/bitstreams/11854. pdf 7. The President’s Power to Detain â€Å"Enemy Combatants† www. pegc. us/archive/Journals/wuerth_Cinn_power_to_detain. pdf How to cite Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror, Essay examples

Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror Free Essays

Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror Ian T. Snyder POL 201 Pearl Galano October 20th 2012 Habeas corpus is considered to be one of the most fundamental guarantees of personal liberty we have enjoyed as a country since the inception of our Constitution. However, questions have arisen regarding the proper use of habeas corpus and have been brought into focus in the past decade. We will write a custom essay sample on Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the years since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, hundreds of people have been detained by the United States government as part of its war on terror. Most of these detainees face indefinite detention and have neither been charged with a crime nor afforded prisoner of war status. Habeas corpus serves to protect citizens against arbitrary arrest, torture, and extrajudicial killings and is a fundamental personal liberty guaranteed by our Constitution and cannot be suspended based on that fact. Habeas corpus (or writ of Habeas corpus ) is a judicially enforceable order issued by a court of law to a prison official ordering that a prisoner be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that prisoner had been lawfully imprisoned and, if not, whether he or she should be released from custody. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned. The rights of writs of habeas corpus are granted in Article I of the Constitution, which States, â€Å"The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. â€Å"( Habeas Corpus in times of Emergency; Iowa State Review) A Habeas Corpus petition is a petition filed with a court by a person who objects to his own or another’s imprisonment. The petition must show that the court ordering the imprisonment made a legal or factual error. The right of habeas corpus is the constitutionally bestowed right of a person to present evidence before a court that he or she has been wrongly imprisoned. History The history of Habeas Corpus is ancient. It appears to be predominately of Anglo-Saxon common law origin, although the precise origin of Habeas Corpus is uncertain. Its principle effect was achieved in the middle ages by use of similar laws, the sum of which helped to mold our current policies. Habeas Corpus has since the earliest times been employed to compel the appearance of a person who is in custody to be brought before a court. Habeas Corpus was generally unknown to the various law systems of Europe which are generally devolved from Roman law. European civil law systems tend to favor collective authority from the top down while the Anglo-Saxon common law tends to favor the individual. As a feature of common law, the right of Habeas Corpus reflects the age old contest between the individual and the state. Habeas Corpus empowers the individual in holding accountable the exercise of the states power to influence liberty. The War on Terror In the years since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, hundreds of people have been detained by the United States government as part of its war on terror at locations such as the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba and Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan. Most of these detainees have faced indefinite detention and have neither been charged with a crime nor afforded prisoner of war Status. Many of these detainees have sought to use habeas corpus proceedings to challenge the legality of their detention. The United States government initially took the position that habeas corpus was not available to detainees because of their status as â€Å"enemy combatants† and their location outside of the sovereign territory of the United States. In 2004, the United States Supreme Court determined that non-citizen detainees at Guantanamo Bay were entitled to file habeas corpus petitions in federal courts. Congress subsequently made a political determination as to the appropriate scope of habeas corpus and passed legislation that, stripped federal courts of jurisdiction to hear habeas corpus petitions brought by enemy combatants. This ruling was then shortly overturned. The question of whether detainees such as those at Bagram and Guantanamo Bay should have access to habeas corpus is a complex one. It involves issues of territorial jurisdiction, separation of powers, and the status of the individuals. However, at a more basic level, this question should ask as to the nature of the right of habeas corpus and the applicability of the rule of law during national security emergencies. At this level, the situation presented by detainees at Guantanamo Bay or Bagram is not entirely unique. It represents another example of those situations in which governments have attempted to deny the availability of habeas corpus based on real or perceived threats to national security. On Oct. 17, 2006, President Bush signed a law suspending the right of habeas corpus to persons â€Å"determined by the United States† to be an â€Å"enemy combatant† in the Global War on Terror. President Bush’s action drew severe criticism, mainly for the law’s failure to specifically designate who in the United States will determine who is and who is not an enemy combatant. This however was not the first time in the history of the U. S. Constitution that it’s guaranteed right to habeas corpus has been suspended by an action of the President of the United States. In the early days of the U. S. Civil War Abraham Lincoln suspended writs of habeas corpus. Both presidents based their action on the dangers of war, and both presidents faced sharp criticism for carrying out what many believed to be an attack on the Constitution. President Bush suspended writs of habeas corpus through his support and signing into law of the Military Commissions Act of 2006. The bill grants the President of the United States almost unlimited authority in establishing and conducting military commissions to try persons held by the U. S. in the Global War on Terrorism. In addition, the Act suspends the right of â€Å"unlawful enemy combatants† to present, or to have presented in their behalf, writs of habeas corpus. 1. Jonathan Turley, professor of constitutional law at George Washington University stated, â€Å"What, really, a time of shame this is for the American system. What the Congress did and what the president signed today essentially revokes over 200 years of American principles and values. † To which I agree. The President’s decision to deny the detainees prisoner-of-war (POW) status remains a point of contention, especially overseas with some arguing that it is based on an inaccurate interpretation of the Geneva Convention for the Treatment of Prisoners of War , which they assert requires that all combatants captured on the battlefield are entitled to be treated as POWs until an independent tribunal has determined otherwise. The Geneva Conventions of 1949 create comprehensive legal specifications for the treatment of detainees in war. Members of a regular armed force and certain others share entitled to specific privileges as POWs. Members of volunteer corps, militias, and organized resistance forces that are not part of the armed services of a party to the conflict are entitled to POW status if they meet four criteria specified in the treaty. Groups that do not meet the standards are not entitled to POW status, and their members who commit belligerent acts may be treated as civilians under the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. ( Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution – Policy Archive ) These â€Å"unlawful combatants† are not afforded immunity for their hostile acts. A petitioner must be treated as a prisoner of war until a competent tribunal has decided otherwise, and that a military commission may not proceed with their trial. Although some 250 detainees (including three children under the age of 16)13 have been released from the detention facilities at the U. S. Naval Station in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and some detainees are being rewarded for cooperation with better living conditions while the status and treatment of detainees who remain in custody continue to be a source of contention. (â€Å"Enemy Combatants† Journal, Wuerth) Summary The Constitution provides Congress with ample authority to legislate the treatment of battlefield detainees in the custody of the U. S. military. The Constitution empowers Congress to make rules regarding capture and to define and punish violations of international law, and to make regulations to govern the armed forces. (Policy Archive) Congress also has the constitutional prerogative to declare war, a power it has not yet exercised with regard to the armed conflict in Afghanistan. By not declaring war, Congress has implicitly redefined what was clearly stated in the Constitution concerning the treatment of detainees. The Administration has asserted that the war on terror is a new kind of conflict, requiring a new set of rules and definitions. However it is clear that there has been a failure to expeditiously process and, if appropriate, prosecute detainees in the custody of the United States, including those in the custody of the United States. References: 2. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 344 F. Supp. 2d 152 (D. D. C. ,2004), rev’d 413 F. 3d 33 (D. C. Cir. 2005), cert. granted 2005 U. S. LEXIS 8222 (Nov. 7, 2005). 3. Habeas Corpus in Times of Emergency: A Historical and Comparative View Brian Farrell University of Iowa College of Law . The War and the Writ Habeas corpus and security in an age of terrorism by Jonathan Shaw January-February 2009 (Harvard Magazine) 5. U. S. -Freed ‘Combatant’ Is Returned to Saudi Arabia, L. A. TIMES, Oct. 12, 2004, at A8; Jerry Markon, Father Denounces Hamdi’s Imprisonment; Son Posed No Threat to U. S. , He Says, WASH. POST, Oct. 13, 2004, at A4. 6. Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution – Policy Archive www. policyarchive. org/handle/10207/bitstreams/11854. pdf 7. The President’s Power to Detain â€Å"Enemy Combatants† www. pegc. us/archive/Journals/wuerth_Cinn_power_to_detain. pdf How to cite Habeas Corpus and the War on Terror, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Environmental Impact Assessment of Tourism †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Environmental Impact Assessment of Tourism. Answer: Introduction Global changes in climate has underwent change in the current age. These changes bear great influence on the industry of tourism. The two factors that have proved to be harmful for the hotel industry is climate change and loss of the biodiversity. This essay talks about the effect that changes in climate along with bio-diversity loss can have on tourism sector. The essay highlights different methods that can be of help for tourism in facing the challenges. It has been suggested by different studies that people will like to visit the places that have high altitude and are situated in the mountainous regions. Tourists who are from the temperate nation form a major part of those who go on international travel. They will like to spend the holiday within that of their home country. Winter will be the preferred season when the tourists will go for vacation. The appealing climate of winter will attract the tourists and the hospitality industry will face loss because they would not be able to earn revenue from the tourists (Li et al. 2014). Shift pertaining to the pattern of travelling will have consequences and more money will be spent on temperate regions. The tourists will end up spending less amount of money on the nations that are warm. It can prove to be effective in altering flow of intra-regional tourism when climate is considered to be very important. There is lack of clear evidence regarding whether climate change can reduce global v olume pertaining to tourism. It can be said that impact on the climate change will however be limited on the basis of the global platform. Tourists will react in a holistic manner to the issue of climate change. Demand pertaining to tourism at the level of region will also be affected on account of the environmental changes. Change pertaining to global climate can have a bearing on demand of tourism within certain selected destinations (Gssling and Peeters 2015). It can also bring changes within the regional level where political destabilization might take place. Decision making process of the tourists will be affected by the notions that people have in relation to climate changes. It will also have a grave impact on the people who invest in tourism. Perceptions that people have towards the environmental changes are of significance for consumers along with that of actual conditions. Media coverage can play a crucial role in deciding regarding choice of customers. Decline has been brought about in the ski-industry on account of the changes in climate (MacNeill and Wozniak 2018). There will be less snow-fall within the sk i-resort on account of global warming. Immense heat will be responsible for keeping the tourists away from the Asian along with Mediterranean regions. The looming fear that disease will spread in these regions will force the tourists not to visit these areas (Garca, Vzquez and Macas 2015). The tourists will be attracted owing to rich bio-diversity and it will help to bring profit for the industry pertaining to tourism. The natural beauty of the places will decline due to the changes taking place in climate and people would not want to visit these places. Rainfall in less amount can be disastrous for the areas that have rain forests and that of coral reef (George et al. 2016). The kind of weather that prevails are important for the tourists. It is found that if the weather is nice then it can help in the performing of an activity and harsh weather can be an inhibitor in relation to participation. Increase in temperature can lead to bleaching and this can be harmful for the coral reefs. The suspended sediments increasing in number can be harmful for plant as well as animal life form (Scott, Hall and Gssling 2016). These kind of conditions can help in forming zooxanthallae which causes the colour to move away from the coral. The coral becomes white in colour in the algae and it dies soon afterwards. Great Barrier Reef helps in bringing profits for tourism but coral bleaching is occurring since the last twenty years. Mitigating measures are important for tourism and this can help in offering various business opportunities. Reduction of energy can act as a mitigating measure and changing destination marketing is important for the tour operators. Shifting in transport from the usage of car to coach can help in reducing energy consumption. It has been found that increasing length of stay by tour operator can reduce carbon footprint (Mowforth and Munt 2015). These can also open the path for different kinds of economic opportunities pertaining to the destinations. Tourism being able to address the issue of climate change forms an important aspect pertaining to sustainable development. Tourism sector should know about the results of climate change in the different economic sectors that can have a bearing on tourism. Sustainable tourism can preserve land for that of nature and it can offer other livelihood options to the people who rely on the use of land. Tourism can help in meeting the emissions reduction target and it does not involve only carbon offset but also that of strategic energy saving (Hall et al. 2015). Introduction of the renewable power and investment in that of energy efficiency can help in the abatement of emission pertaining to tourism. Accommodation is responsible for 27 % of the emissions and it can help in saving money by the reduction of emissions. Using of the offsets that can target the challenges pertaining to fuel-switching can act as a cost-effective strategy. Tourism can raise the awareness and it can help in motivati ng people to change long-established practices. Proper definition of the natural areas and introspecting on capacity limit can help in preventing tourism from damaging the species (Li et al. 2014). Creative campaigns are also developed by tourism that can help in raising awareness in relation to bio-diversity. Conclusion: The tourists on account of global warming will visit spots only in the winter season that can lead to loss of revenue. Less snowfall within the ski-resorts can decrease number of visitors in these places. Change in that of medium of transport can be of great benefit in reducing the use of energy. It has been found that if the tourists will stay at a location for a long period of time then it can help in reduction of carbon foot print. The tourism will develop creative campaigns that can prove to be an effective step in augmenting awareness. Training programs can also prove to be effective in protecting environment. References: Garca, F.A., Vzquez, A.B. and Macas, R.C., 2015. Resident's attitudes towards the impacts of tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives,13, pp.33-40. George, R., Barben, T., Chivaka, R., van Vuuren, M.J., Knott, B., Lehmann, S., Mulder, M., Nel, J., Nieuwenhuizen, C., Saunders, C. and Swart, K., 2016.Managing tourism in South Africa(No. Ed. 2). Oxford University Press. Gssling, S. and Peeters, P., 2015. Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 19002050.Journal of Sustainable Tourism,23(5), pp.639-659. Hall, C.M., Amelung, B., Cohen, S., Eijgelaar, E., Gssling, S., Higham, J., Leemans, R., Peeters, P., Ram, Y. and Scott, D., 2015. On climate change skepticism and denial in tourism.Journal of Sustainable Tourism,23(1), pp.4-25. Li, G., Yang, X., Liu, Q. and Zheng, F., 2014. Destination island effects: A theoretical framework for the environmental impact assessment of human tourism activities. Tourism Management Perspectives,10, pp.11-18. MacNeill, T. and Wozniak, D., 2018. The economic, social, and environmental impacts of cruise tourism. Tourism Management,66, pp.387-404. Mowforth, M. and Munt, I., 2015.Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalisation and new tourism in the third world. Routledge. Scott, D., Hall, C.M. and Gssling, S., 2016. A report on the Paris Climate Change Agreement and its implications for tourism: Why we will always have Paris.Journal of Sustainable Tourism,24(7), pp.933-948.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Aristotle Essays (508 words) - Ancient Greek Philosophers

Aristotle Aristotle (b. 384 - d. 322 BC), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Aristotle's' writing reflects his time, background and beliefs. Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia. His father, Nichomacus, was the personal physician to the King of Macedonia, Amyntas. At the age of seventeen, Aristotle left for Athens to study at Plato's Academy. He studied at the Academy for about twenty years, up until Plato's death. Plato's death sent Aristotle to a city in Asia Minor, called Assos, where his friend, Hermias was ruler(Encarta). It was in Assos where Aristotle met, Pythias, who is described as either a niece or daughter of Hermias, who Aristotle married after the murder of Hermias, by the Persians. Aristotle then went to Pella, the capitol of Macedonia, where he became the tutor for the king's son, Alexander, who later became Alexander the Great. When Alexander became King, Aristotle went to Athens where he began to lecture at the Lyceum. He lectured while walking about in one of its covered walkways, earning him the nickname Peripatetic?, which means walking about. Aristotle lectured and directed the Lyceum for twelve years, producing during this time the lecture notes which now form his works. Only a small amount of Aristotle's works have survived. The writings which did survive like: ?Metaphysics,.? which were his writings on the nature, scope, and properties of being; and ?Physics,? his writings on astronomy, meteorology, plants, and animals, these writings have changed the way we think and live. Aristotle's works encompassed all the major areas of thought: logic, science, metaphysics, ethics, and politics. He developed a new, non-Platonic theory of form, created a system of deductive reasoning for universal and existential statements, produced a theory of the cosmos, matter, life, and mind, and theorized about the relationship between ethics and politics and the nature of the good life(Young Students Encyclopedia). His system rival Plato's for the next 2000 years. Aristotle was a firm believer that philosophy came from wonder, and that knowledge came from experience. He had a wealth of knowledge, from many experience; if he was correct about philosophy coming from wonder, he would have had to wonder quite a bit. Aristotle was a genius, this is evident in his writings, because the ideas and concepts he proposed in his writing were ahead of his time. Aristotle learned from the best and taught the best so his ideas and thoughts were always being challenged, which made him thrive for knowledge. Aristotle is consider to be the one of best if not the best philosophers ever, his ideas reflect the title. Aristotle's system of philosophy was never as influential in ancient times as Plato's. Indeed, Aristotle's works may not have been published for some centuries after his death. After the fall of Rome, his work was largely lost to Europe, while Plato's were saved, Aristotle's works still played a vital role in our society's evolution. Aristotle's writing were so ahead of his time, they made people question his sanity. Though, during that period of time he could have been labeled as a nut he is now labeled as one of the most influential philosophers of all time. Mathematics

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Hospital Hospitalities

Hà ´pital Hospitalities "AAAAAAAAAOOOOOOOOOOCH!". "Voir a fait thaaat hurrt ?" Beseeched Imbà ©cile d'Infirmià ¨re dans son accent britannique poli. Les signes de rà ©volte à ©taient simplement à ©vidents sur le troisià ¨me plancher(à ©tage) de ce domicile "la respiration de sel de pin". Ces cris perà §ants horrifiants ont à ©tà © faits par moi, depuis, je m'à ©tais posà © en cette place en face de celui de ciel. J'ai eu horreur rester Detroit Riverview l'Hà ´pital parce qu'ils ont servi l'alimentation horrible, leur personnel m'a traità © avec la cruautà © absolue et la nà ©gligence et les rà ¨gles(autorità ©s) et les rà ¨glements qui ont à ©tà © à ©tablis, à ©taient absolument absurde. L'alimentation d'hà ´pital à ©tait sans aucun doute horrible. Un de leurs plats principaux à ©tait les bandes de boeuf grillà ©es qui, probablement, pourraient avoir à ©tà © faites dans des vestes en cuir. De plus, si leurs hamburgers avaient dà ©sormais la graisse compilà ©e dans eux, ils auraient pu en rà ©alità © alimenter Rosanne Barr. Une question auquel on a souvent demandà ©, à ©tait si la dinde dà ©borde à ©tait la dinde, ou dà ©border. En fait, quelque chose de l'alimentation a semblà © , apparemment, à ªtre de-guerre-stratà ©gique. Autrement dit, la graisse de la tarte d'asperge à ©tait assez pour noyer un individu. Malheureusement, leur chariot de Mandrin cà ©là ¨bre à ©tait upchuck et, le croire ou pas, à ©tait le deuxià ¨me article qui avait le potentiel pour tuer le Surhomme. En outre, si leurs toasts franà §ais ont ressemblà © dà ©sormais la styro-mousse, ils seraient employà ©s dans l'emballage. Une autre raison pourquoi j'ai mà ©prisà © cet hà ´pital à ©tait tant parce que le personnel m'a traità © avec une cruautà © si incroyable et la nà ©gligence. Par exemple, les infirmià ¨res avaient une habitude dà ©sagrà ©able de me laisser(me quitter) inconscient de quand l'aiguille torturante - la poussà ©e de la cà ©rà ©monie devait avoir lieu. d'autres temps, le prà ©posà © nà ©gligent qui pre... Free Essays on Hospital Hospitalities Free Essays on Hospital Hospitalities Hà ´pital Hospitalities "AAAAAAAAAOOOOOOOOOOCH!". "Voir a fait thaaat hurrt ?" Beseeched Imbà ©cile d'Infirmià ¨re dans son accent britannique poli. Les signes de rà ©volte à ©taient simplement à ©vidents sur le troisià ¨me plancher(à ©tage) de ce domicile "la respiration de sel de pin". Ces cris perà §ants horrifiants ont à ©tà © faits par moi, depuis, je m'à ©tais posà © en cette place en face de celui de ciel. J'ai eu horreur rester Detroit Riverview l'Hà ´pital parce qu'ils ont servi l'alimentation horrible, leur personnel m'a traità © avec la cruautà © absolue et la nà ©gligence et les rà ¨gles(autorità ©s) et les rà ¨glements qui ont à ©tà © à ©tablis, à ©taient absolument absurde. L'alimentation d'hà ´pital à ©tait sans aucun doute horrible. Un de leurs plats principaux à ©tait les bandes de boeuf grillà ©es qui, probablement, pourraient avoir à ©tà © faites dans des vestes en cuir. De plus, si leurs hamburgers avaient dà ©sormais la graisse compilà ©e dans eux, ils auraient pu en rà ©alità © alimenter Rosanne Barr. Une question auquel on a souvent demandà ©, à ©tait si la dinde dà ©borde à ©tait la dinde, ou dà ©border. En fait, quelque chose de l'alimentation a semblà © , apparemment, à ªtre de-guerre-stratà ©gique. Autrement dit, la graisse de la tarte d'asperge à ©tait assez pour noyer un individu. Malheureusement, leur chariot de Mandrin cà ©là ¨bre à ©tait upchuck et, le croire ou pas, à ©tait le deuxià ¨me article qui avait le potentiel pour tuer le Surhomme. En outre, si leurs toasts franà §ais ont ressemblà © dà ©sormais la styro-mousse, ils seraient employà ©s dans l'emballage. Une autre raison pourquoi j'ai mà ©prisà © cet hà ´pital à ©tait tant parce que le personnel m'a traità © avec une cruautà © si incroyable et la nà ©gligence. Par exemple, les infirmià ¨res avaient une habitude dà ©sagrà ©able de me laisser(me quitter) inconscient de quand l'aiguille torturante - la poussà ©e de la cà ©rà ©monie devait avoir lieu. d'autres temps, le prà ©posà © nà ©gligent qui pre...